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Unit of Union Carbide arid Carbon Corporation 

" ' 

TV - 


Carbide and Carbon Building, 30 East 42nd Street, New York City 1 



LLOY steels, because of their superior 
physical properties, have made possible 
tremendous advances in engineering. Their 
greater strength and endurance have enabled 
engineers to reduce the weight of machine 
parts and equipment and at the same time to 
increase the factor of safety. This has re- 
sulted in greater speeds and improved effi- 
ciencies of operation. In the chemical and 
all i *■< I industries their resistance to heat and 
the corrosive action of many chemicals ha 
resulted in greatly reducing the enormou 
losses caused by oxidation and corrosion. 

The stainless -teels, because of their wide 
spread use and popularity, are undoubtedly 
the besl known of the alloy steel-. Their 
beauty, durability and resistance to heat and 
corrosion make them suitable for use in al- 

nost every industrial field, and i w i -s an 
being developed so rapidly that ii is difficult 
to keep abreast of them. This booklet has 
I ii prepared in the belief that a brief sum- 
mary of the major applications of the stain- 
less steel- will be of great interest to a larg- 
number of people. We shall be plad to fur- 
nish additional information to anyone desil 

i tg Bore eomplete details. 

Ei.i' net Metallurgical Company 



Stainless Steels 

And Their 


Steels Are Employed in 
Practically Every Industrial Field 

HROMIUM exerts such a powerful influence on 
the physical and chemical properties oi steel 
that most of the special steels upon which industry 
relies for exceptional service contain this element. 
Although a large number of chromium steels of 
various types have been developed, these may be 
conveniently divided into three fairly definite clas- 
sifications: those containing relatively low per- 
centages of chromium, up to approximately 5 per 
cent; those with a medium chromium content, up 
to about 20 per cent; and those containing still 
higher percentages of chromium. 

In general the steels in the group with a rela- 
tively low chromium content are suitable for engi- 
neering applications where the excellent combina- 
tion of strength, toughness and hardness, which 
they possess, makes them particularly desirable. 
These steels may, and frequently do, contain other 
alloying elements such as nickel, molybdenum, va- 
nadium and manganese which greatly enhance the 
physical properties of the plain carbon-chromium 
steels. Some of the steels in this group, particu- 
larly those containing about 5 per cent chromium 
and a relatively low carbon content, show an im- 
proved resistance to atmospheric corrosion, and 

The splendor of the 

Empire State Building is enhanced 

by trim of 18-8 chrome-nickel steel 

tures is also much better than that of the ordinary 
carbon steels. 

The second group, containing up to about 20 
per cent of chromium, with or without additional 
alloying elements, consists largely of the steels 
commonly known as "stainless" or "rustless," dis- 

their resistance to oxidation at elevated tempera- tinguished by their great resistance to atmospheric 


and certain forms of chemical corrosion. They also in order to develop most completely its corrosion- 

show excellent resistance to oxidation at elevated resisting properties. The third class comprises the 

austenitic chromium-nickel alloys which contain 

temperatures and are extensively used for high 
temperature work. 

The steels of the third group — those containing 
over 20 per cent of chromium — are distinguished 
by their great resistance to oxidation at high tem- 
peratures and by their extreme resistance to atmos- 
pheric corrosion and a wide variety of chemical 


The boundary lines between these three groups 
of steels are not clearly defined, so that the above 
classification is only approximate both as to the 
chromium content and the physical and chemical 


There are three fairly well defined classes of the 
stainless steels in the second group. The first con- 
tains from 12 to 19 per cent chromium and not 
over 0.10 per cent carbon, and its rustless or stain- 
less properties do not require development by heat 
treatment. The second class contains from 12 to 
15 per cent chromium, with a carbon content of 
0.25 to 0.40 per cent. It hardens upon quenching, 
and is not suitable for deep drawing or forming. 
Careful heat treatment and polishing are required 

about 17 to 20 per cent chromium and 8 to 10 

per cent nickel. 

The chromium-nickel alloy steels, of which the 
well-known "18-8" is typical, have become increas- 
ingly popular in this country, until at the present 
time applications for this metal have been found 
in practically every industry. Stainless steels are 
particularly well adapted for use in resisting at- 
mospheric corrosion, attack from oxidizing agents, 
and scaling at elevated temperatures. With their 
high physical properties and broad range corrosion 
resistance, progressive designers are continually 
finding new uses for stainless steels in place of or- 
dinary steel and cast iron. 

It is interesting to note how the consumption of 
stainless steels in various fields grows as the merits 
of these alloys are appreciated and applied. A 
survey of the major consumers showed the petro- 
leum industry to be in the lead in 1930. The au- 
tomotive, chemical, architectural, food prepara- 
tion and distribution, paper, laundry, aviation and 
marine fields followed in the order given. 

This kitchen is completely 

equipped throughout with 18-8 chrome-nickel 

steel, thus insuring beauty and cleanliness at all times 


Milk bottle filling 
machine head made entirely 
of 18-8 chrome'nickel steel 

The ready adaptability of the stainless chro- 
mium-nickel steels to the food and associated in- 
dustries brought about such a rapid advancement 
that this field climbed to the head of the list of 
users in 1931, while the petroleum, automotive and 
chemical industries kept the same position in re- 
lation to each other. High temperature and pres- 
sure work climbed up to fifth place, followed by 
ship-building and architectural trim for buildings. 
Completing the list of major consumers were the 
aircraft, railroad, paper and hospital fields. 

A survey of the particular uses of stainless steels 
in these major fields is extremely interesting be- 
cause of the diversity of applications shown. 

Food Industry 

Under this heading are included the equipment 
and containers used in the preparation, packing 
and distribution of foods, and the household cul- 
inary appliances which have recently become so 

Probably the largest application in this field is 
the use of stainless steel containers. Ranging in 
size from small cans to tanks for trucks and freight 
cars, these containers are rapidly becoming increas- 
ingly valuable in the shipping of milk, fruit juices, 
beverages, and all foods which have a tendency to 
corrode the materials formerly used, or which are 
affected by contact with ordinary metals. 

Equipment used in preparing various foods has 
shown greatly improved performance when stain- 
less steel has been used for parts subject to rusting 
or corrosion. Beaters, mixers, paddles, vats and 
drums found in bakeries, candy factories, bottling 
works, are being fabricated to a large extent from 
18-8 chrome-nickel steel. 

A partial list of the stainless steel equipment 
used in the dairy branch of the food industry 
follows : 

Circulating type horizontal vat pasteurizers: 

All linings and jackets 
Spray pasteurizers: 

All linings and jackets 

Continuous pasteurizers: 
All linings and jackets 

Paddle-type pasteurizers: 
Linings, jackets and paddles 

Tank compartments for milk trucks 

These corrugated rolls 

of 18-8 chrome-nickel steel are 

part of an orange-crushing machine 


A 1 1- welded stainless 

steel soak cars and tanks used for 

conveying fruit pulp in making beverages 

Tank compartments for freight cars 

Automatic milk holders: 
Compartments and jackets 

Cylindrical storage tank linings 

Air actuated holders 


Pistons, cylinders, suction valve seats, 
discharge valve seats, valve rods 


Vacuum pans 

Steam chests for condensing vacuum pans 


Revolving vertical coil vats 

Surface coolers: 

Tubing, headers, and fins 
Internal ammonia coolers 
Weighing tanks and cans 
Dump tanks 
Bottle fillers: 

All sheet metal and tubes in contact with 


Pipe line filters 
Ice boxes 

Valves and fittings of all kinds 

Ice cream cabinets, linings and covers 

Butter boxes for butter printers 
Recording thermometers: 

All metal parts coming in contact with 

the milk 

This list might be considered typical of the uses 
to be found in other branches of the food industry. 
Wherever fruit juices, fatty acids, or foods come in 
contact with metal, stainless steel will be found to 
be particularly advantageous. 

In the fruit handling field stainless steels have 
been widely used for fruit knives, corrugated rolls 
for crushing machines, canning equipment such as 
dippers, pails, vats, pipe lines, cookers and con- 

Bakeries use chrome-nickel steel for dough mix- 
ers, troughs, baking pans, spoons and dippers. 

A considerable amount of this material is used 
in equipment of packing houses where metal parts 
come in contact with animal fats and acids and 
consequently are subject to corrosion. 

Probably one of the most popular uses of stain- 
less steel is in kitchens, particularly those of res- 


Stainless sinks of 18-8 

chrome-nickel steel add beauty 

and cleanliness to any pantry or kitchen 

Stainless steel 
tableware retains its 
spotless beauty permanently 

Stainless steel kitchen 

utensils will not rust or tarnish 

and are not affected by food acids 



taurants, hotels and hospitals. A few of the appli- the petroleum industry attack metals so rapidly 

cations are listed below: 

Stationary and tilting kettles 

Steamer and roaster parts 

Boilers and cookers 

Practically every kind of cooking utensil 

Salt driers 

Slicing machines 

Milk and cream dispensers 

Dish and glass washing equipment 

Cook's tables 
Steam tables 


Plate covers and trays 


Hand rails 


Refrigerator and stove trim 

Covers for commercial mayonnaise mixers 

Ice containers for shipping fish 

Petroleum Industry 

The extremely corrosive agents encountered in 

These tubes of stainless 

steel are used to combat the intense 

corrosion encountered in the petroleum industry 

that the life of ordinary steels is frequently very 
short. The length of service of plain carbon steel 
tubing in cracking and refining operation is reck- 
oned in months, and frequently in hours, so that 
the severity of the action on metal can be readily 
appreciated. Various types of alloy steel have been 

tried, and at the present time the stainless steels 
have shown the best results. In some instances 
where crude oil has a high sulphur content, a 
high chromium steel that is low in nickel may 
prove the most suitable. Where great strength and 
heat resistance are desired, the chrome-nickel steels 
give the best results. Some of the more important 
applications of the stainless steels in this field are 




Oil still tubes, valves and fittings 
Tube supports, hangers and sheets 
Header boxes and return bends 
Bubble caps and plates 
Swing lines in sour crude oil storage tanks 


The stainless steel lining 

of this 3000 gal. milk storage tank 

insures clean, sanitary working conditions 

These castings containing high 
percentages of chromium give extremely 
long life under severe operating conditions 

This casing for a sand pump 

for acid mine water must resist wear and acid 

corrosion. It contains 27 to 30 per cent chromium 



steam kettle lined with 
stainless steel for handling 
hot ac\d. Note welded joints 

Bubblt trayi 

Pump parts, pip< fittings and stop i cks 

Hoi I pumps: 

\ Ivf riui bolts, wet-end pisto 

ill \ ind iralve seats 

Air pi is 

Door binges and handles 

Cowl Lamps, beading and slop lights 

Dashboard trim 
Curtain glass fi arnes 

Gasoline tank caps and radiator caps 

Pump shafts 

\i iiotn i Industry 

r l e major u of b( m) Is in t) • tut >- 

industry i rl which will nol rusl nor tar- 

Chi mical Industry 

r | he greati I rl in the chemical industry is for 

aeorrosi* •resistant metal suitable foi use in equip 

mv i • . . i i a larg< - for cer- men! coming into contact with highly active chemi 

in - such is u iin s|. s. hich an mhWj , I \w v^i mn JL>x I.-.. 1 I M J I .. i.;..i. 

mi ich pum| 

ainh* ' nn b these i wn 

ments | is < to k< clean and 

bi ight. li ig and forming 

p tics i • • it a liable matei ial n the 

p t of * U f tbe n nut turer* Sonn I tl 

i s of inh -s I i<»r automobiles are s en 

Radial IN 

Head Ian - 


Hub cans 

and wheel 



cal-. lsyet,noo all< has been developed which 
will riMTi 1 1 requitetneiits, but tUinlett §1 Is have 
• far in meeting the situation. An extensiv* 
field foi tin e f- eels has been opened uj» by theii 
• ii ince to ati ck from nitric acid and oilier 
i • ful i lizinp ajmiN. There ire innumerable 

^cesof apparatu d equipment parts fabricated 

from stainless elg; but th»' , panying list 

mav be I onsidered typical: 

Nitrii arid equipment: 

Pipe lines, \ats, valves, towns, drums an 
tank cars 
I ils and nozzles for handling Milphuric aci 


Pickling tanks 

Acid tanks of many types 






Heat exchangers 


Coils, piping, valves, seats and fittings 

Mill liner-plates 

Pump rods, plungers, shafts, casings, etc. 
Conveyor shafts 
Agitator blades 
Filter screen 

High Temperature and Pressure 

Stainless steels are notably resistant to high tem- 
perature oxidation. Experiments have shown that 
a thin adherent film containing chromium oxide is 
formed on the surface of the metal which retards 
further oxidation to a marked degree. This de- 
sirable property of stainless steel opens up a vast 
field for its use as heat-resisting parts. 

Long time tests have indicated high creep- 
strengths at elevated temperatures. This is a most 

important feature of any metal subjected to high 
stresses at elevated temperatures, and it has re- 
sulted in an increasing use of these steels for equip- 
ment operating under highly adverse conditions. 
The following applications have found favor in 
the high temperature and pressure fields: 

Furnace flue valves 

Furnace door arches 

Vapor condensers 

Return bends 

Furnace plates, spiders and retorts 

Checkerwork supports for blast furnace stoves 

Oil burner nozzles, fire-pots, and combustion 


Annealing boxes 
Calcining retorts 

Lead and cyanide dipping baskets 
Enameling bucks, racks and hangers 
Glass rolls 

Normalizing furnace rolls 
Conveyor links 
Skid rails for billet heating furnaces 

Smelter bins 

The chromium 

content of these annealint* boxes 

combats oxidation at high temperatures 




High temperature and pressure bomb 
Instantaneous water heater coils 
Piping, valves and fittings of all types 
Rabble arms for roasting furna< es 

Ma ri n e 

The potential field of application in the marine 
industry is enormous and progress is being made 
in introducing stainless steels for fittings and parts 
subjected to the action of sea water. Great re-i 
tance to salt air, spray and immersion in sea water 
renders them particularly well adapted to the 
brightwork and rigging about a ship, one of the 
largest uses of stainless steel wire rope being for 
yacht rigging. Their durability justifies their use 
for parts more or less continuously immersed in 
salt water, a notable instance being in cables and 
superstructure used on submarines. The following 
may be considered representative uses in this field: 


Passenger and cargo ships: 

Deck fixtures 

Galley trim 

Pantry, dresser and table tops 

Barber shop trim 
Cabin fittings 
Marine hardware 
Door panels 
Hand rails 

Landing floats 

Motor boats and small craft: 
Outboard motor parts 

Fender strips and wales 


Chocks, cleats, etc. 

Windshield brackets 
Gasoline and oil tanks 
Pump parts 

Architectural Uses 

As in the marine and shipbuilding fields, stain- 
less steels are used by architects and builders for 
increased utility and lasting beauty. The corrosion- 

Stainless steel was used 

for work tables and dressers in the 

culinary department of the S. S. Manhattan 



The stays, halyards and 
fittings of the ketch Ayesha are 
made of 18-8 chrome-nickel steel 

This door panel is 

typical of the pleasing effects 

possible with cast stainless steel 

This 24-12 chrome-nickel 
fitting has been in service in a 
sulphite paper mill for three years 


resistant properties of these steels make them 
invaluable for use where a permanent, gleaming, 
silvery finish is desired. In the larger cities the air 
is frequently polluted with smoke, dirt and gases 
which wreak havoc with the exterior trim of build- 
ings. The permanence and beauty of stainless 
steels has led to their extensive use as trim of such 
well-known edifices as the Empire State Building 
and the Chrysler Tower in New York, and the 
LaSalle-Wacker Building in Chicago. 

The popular demand for household appliances 
that can readily be kept spic and span has resulted 
in a demand for stainless steel furnishings in homes 
and public buildings. The accompanying list is 
typical of the applications found in the structural 

and decorative fields: 

Exterior building trim: 

Window sash, spandrels, mullions, towers, 
balconies, grilles, screens, etc. 

Interior trim: 

Elevator lobbies, vestibules, hand rails 
Overmantles, ceilings and window curtains 

Bank cages and fixtures 

Vault linings and safe deposit boxes and 

Mirror frames, nameplates, etc. 
Household equipment: 

Cooking utensils 

Table tops, sinks and refrigerators 
Plumbing fixtures 
Trim for kitchen ranges 


es an 

d ch 


Lamps and clocks 
Fireplaces and fire screens 
Hardware of all types 

Wire rope 
U-bolts for underwater construction 

Covered bridges 
Hydraulic construction 

The safe deposit boxes, 

columns and trim of this modern bank are 

beautified with sheets of straight chromium steel 


This pneumatic tired rail 
car fabricated entirely of stainless 
steel is remarkably light for its size 
and is an innovation in car construction 

Railway Field 

The use of stainless steels on the railroads is in 
the early stages of development, but there are sev- 
eral applications now undergoing test which prom- 
ise to have far reaching effects on railway opera- 
tion. The profitable operation of railway branch 
lines lies in providing fast, frequent and low cost 
service. Modern rail cars of conventional design 
weigh from 130,000 to 240,000 pounds, and if 
self propelled, require motors of 300 to 900 horse- 

A railway passenger car was recently built en- 
tirely of stainless steel. This car, which seats 47 
passengers, weighs 22,000 pounds, and requires 90 
to 125 horsepower for its operation. The remark- 
able saving in dead weight and consequent reduc- 
tion of motive power was made possible by the 
high strength of this steel and the fact that ex- 
tremely thin sections could be used without fear 
that corrosion might eventually impair the strength 
of these sections. In designing this car safety was 
the first consideration and the factor of safety is 
equal to that of an ordinary car weighing ten or 
more times as much. 

The high creep strength and resistance to oxida- 
tion of stainless steels at elevated temperatures 
renders them suitable for use in locomotive firebox 
side sheets, condenser tubes, arch supports, and su- 
perheater parts. In addition to the tank cars al- 
ready mentioned under the dairy and chemical in- 

dustries, stainless steels are well adapted for trim 
and utensils in dining cars, and plumbing fixtures 
on Pullman cars and passenger coaches. 

Aircraft Industry 

At first the use of stainless steels in aircraft con- 
struction was considered feasible for only a few 
special parts. However, a plane was recently built 
in which all structural members were of 18-8 
chrome-nickel steel. An interesting and novel fea- 
ture in the design of this plane is the construction 

Seaplanes like ships, are 

corroded by salt sprays. The use 

of 18-8 chrome-nickel steel for structural 

parts of this plane overcomes this problem 


The use of IS -8 chrome-nickel 
steel float it ear on this sea pi tint insures 
resistance to corro n from sea water 

of th< wings and rudder. They were built up of 
weld i channels and angles over which stainless 
steel g uze \ s stretched and then coated with a 
fillei of transpai it re6in. With this construction 
it w. possible to obtain from 12 to 20 per cent 
ter strength in the bers without an\ in- 

crease in weight. The assurance of freedom from 
corrosion is probably the most important factor in 
the fabrication of metal parts. Stainless steels are 
frequently used for cabin fittings, wing beams, 
cockpit control parts, exhaust manifolds, control 
cables, and pontoons for seaplanes. 

Stainless steel helps to 

< many pi is in the dyeing 

industry. t rolls ore of 1S-S chrome-nickel steel 


Dyeing Industry 

Stainless steel may be used to advantage for 
equipment in the dyeing industry because it offers 
all the advantages of materials formerly used with- 
out any of their disadvantages. Wooden vats which 
have been largely used in the past in dyeing op- 
erations have two distinct disadvantages: (1) pro- 
longed boiling out operations are necessary when 
it is desired to change from one color to another, 
and (2) splinters frequently develop which cause 
damage when delicate fabrics are being treated. 
For these reasons wooden vats may in many cases 
be replaced to advantage by stainless steel vats. 

Experience has shown that stainless steel is an 
ideal material for this application. When chang- 
ing dyeing solutions from one shade to another it 
is only necessary to drain out the vats and rinse 
them with a stream of water from a hose. The 
time required to change from one color to another 
is so much less when stainless steel vats are used 
that in some cases one vat has replaced ten or even 
fifteen wood vats. Stainless steel is being used to 
advantage for the following dye house equipment: 


Pumps, valves and piping 

Reels and rolls 


Spray pipes 

Buckets and dippers 

Dye sticks 

Yarn tubes and racks 

Brewing Industry 

Many materials have been used for the con- 
struction of vessels used in the brewing industry, 
but many of them possess some very definite dis- 
advantages. Some are difficult to fabricate, others 
are hard to keep clean, while others cause a '"hazi- 
ness" or turbidity in the beer. Some of the metals 
impart an undesirable flavor to the beer; some are 
easily attacked by the chemical cleansing agents 
used; while others adversely affect the fermenta- 
tion process. 

Stainless steel has been shown, both by labora- 
tory tests and by actual use in breweries, to be an 
ideal material for brewing equipment. It does not 

affect the flavor, color, brilliancy, fullness of the 
beer, nor does the beer attack stainless steel. The 
following list includes various applications of 
stainless steel in the brewing industry: 

Yeast pans 
Fermentation vats 
Storage and auxiliary tanks 
Cooling coils 


Measuring vessels 

Clarifier slats 


Heat exchangers 

Bottling machinery 

Coils of stainless steel are fabricated 

into many sizes for numerous industries. This 

coil of 4 in. LPS. is used in soap manufacture 


Beer barrels of 18-8 
chrome-nickel steel are 
being used in increasing volume 
because of their inherent advan- 
tages over other types of casks 

Miscellaneous Applications 

Practically every industry has some equipment 
in which the use of stainless steels would prove of 
value. To completely cover these applications in 
detail would be impossible. The following list 
consists of typical examples taken from the fields 
not already covered: 


Pans for x-ray tables 

Sun lamp reflectors 

Oxygen room and tent fixtures and parts 

Baby incubators 


Operating room equipment 

Kitchen equipment 


Paper mills: 

Blow pit bottoms 

Relief gas lines and coolers 

Acid circulation systems 

Digestor linings 
Corrosion resisting wire and wire rope 
Steam turbine blades 
Motion picture film developers 

Blueprint machines 

Tanks for zinc plate etchings 

Clamps for phone directory stands 

Manhole steps for sewers 

Street lane and traffic markers 

Caps for surveyor's bench marks 

Screws, bolts, and nuts of all kinds 

Laundry equipment 

Barber shop and beauty parlor appliances 

Soap manufacturing equipment 


Dental instruments 


Watches, settings, vanities, cigarette cases, 
Laboratory apparatus 
Trunk corners and trim 
Golf clubs 

The examples herein mentioned are but a few 
of the many ways in which stainless steel may be 
used beneficially. Since the manufacture and fab- 
rication of stainless steels have been placed on a 
commercial basis, new applications are being con- 
stantly found, and the development and expansion 
of their use have been truly remarkable. 



These */-, 5-, 6-, and 10-in. diameter 

welded stainless steel pipes are used for 

handling hot sulphite liquor in paper manufacture 

Large pressure vessel of 18 -S 

chrome-nickel steel 7/16 in. thick, with 

flanged and dished heads used for soap manufacture 



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SH _-« : -T 




F A J- 1 968-5 S* 

Copyrigrht 1932 EM Co. 

Printed in U.S.A.